ucsdhealthsciences:

Tongue-in-chic
Speaking of rats (OK, we weren’t but now that the subject’s been mentioned), we present the above laser scanning confocal micrograph of an en face section of epithelium of a rat’s tongue, produced by Tom Deerinck at the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research at UC San Diego.
The image slightly penetrates the superficial epithelium of the tongue and uses a variety of stains to highlight distinct structures. Most notable is the cross-hatched mesh of striated muscle fibers, whose actin (a contractile protein) glows fluorescently red. Cell DNA is stained blue. Cell membranes are highlighted in green.
Rats, of course, have long had a voice in medical research. They are among science’s most cherished model organisms, employed by researchers everywhere to study everything from autism to spinal cord injuries to the warming effects of eating durian while taking the painkiller paracetamol, otherwise known as acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol.
Some rat models are the product of targeted genetic engineering, but mostly they are useful for just being appallingly similar to human beings, biologically speaking. Or as in the case of the naked mole rat, utterly unlike us. The naked mole rat is a favorite in cancer research because, oddly enough, it is cancer-resistant. In decades of study, not a single incident of cancer has been detected in a naked mole rat, which makes it a fitting model for finding new ways to fight the disease.

ucsdhealthsciences:

Tongue-in-chic

Speaking of rats (OK, we weren’t but now that the subject’s been mentioned), we present the above laser scanning confocal micrograph of an en face section of epithelium of a rat’s tongue, produced by Tom Deerinck at the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research at UC San Diego.

The image slightly penetrates the superficial epithelium of the tongue and uses a variety of stains to highlight distinct structures. Most notable is the cross-hatched mesh of striated muscle fibers, whose actin (a contractile protein) glows fluorescently red. Cell DNA is stained blue. Cell membranes are highlighted in green.

Rats, of course, have long had a voice in medical research. They are among science’s most cherished model organisms, employed by researchers everywhere to study everything from autism to spinal cord injuries to the warming effects of eating durian while taking the painkiller paracetamol, otherwise known as acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol.

Some rat models are the product of targeted genetic engineering, but mostly they are useful for just being appallingly similar to human beings, biologically speaking. Or as in the case of the naked mole rat, utterly unlike us. The naked mole rat is a favorite in cancer research because, oddly enough, it is cancer-resistant. In decades of study, not a single incident of cancer has been detected in a naked mole rat, which makes it a fitting model for finding new ways to fight the disease.

physics biology science photography

natureofnature:

Sensory axons (long, slender nerve fibers) covering the tail of a 3- day-old larval zebrafish. This “Brainbow” image was collected using confocal microscopy. In the Brainbow technique (Nature, 2007), cells randomly choose combinations of red, yellow and cyan fluorescent proteins, so that they each glow a particular color. This provides a way to distinguish neighboring cells of the nervous system and follow their pathways. Seventh Prize, 2009 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition

natureofnature:

Sensory axons (long, slender nerve fibers) covering the tail of a 3- day-old larval zebrafish. This “Brainbow” image was collected using confocal microscopy. In the Brainbow technique (Nature, 2007), cells randomly choose combinations of red, yellow and cyan fluorescent proteins, so that they each glow a particular color. This provides a way to distinguish neighboring cells of the nervous system and follow their pathways. Seventh Prize, 2009 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition

(Source: cellimagelibrary.org, via talesofscienceandlove)

science biology

mucholderthen:

Typographical Images
Using text from classic scientific masterpieces
Stephen Gaeta, MD, PhD 

AIRWAY
Text from the 1628 treatise De Motu Cordis (otherwise known as On the Motion of the Heart and Blood) by William Harvey, in which he first postulates the circulation of blood from the right side of the heart through the lungs into the left heart before perfusing the rest of the body.

EXTRAOCULAR
Text from Zoonomia, the 1794 masterpiece of Erasmus Darwin (grandfather of Charles), in which he attempted to catalog and explain human anatomy, pathology, and physiology, including the visual system.

TRANSGENIC
Text from Chromosome 1 of the human genome.

(via stephengaeta.com)

design science biology

ucresearch:

Uncovering the genetic ‘Adam’ and ‘Eve’

Almost every man alive can trace his origins to one man who lived about 135,000 years ago, new research suggests. And that ancient man likely shared the planet with the mother of all women.
Despite their overlap in time, ancient “Adam” and ancient “Eve” probably didn’t even live near each other, let alone mate. 
"Those two people didn’t know each other," said Melissa Wilson Sayres, a geneticist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study.

Read more →

ucresearch:

Uncovering the genetic ‘Adam’ and ‘Eve’

Almost every man alive can trace his origins to one man who lived about 135,000 years ago, new research suggests. And that ancient man likely shared the planet with the mother of all women.

Despite their overlap in time, ancient “Adam” and ancient “Eve” probably didn’t even live near each other, let alone mate. 

"Those two people didn’t know each other," said Melissa Wilson Sayres, a geneticist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study.

Read more →

science biology

mucholderthen:

VESICULAR FUSION
by Suety Kwan [on Behance]

The final image was published on the cover of the journal Autophagy, tying in to the lead article on the fusion of amphisomes and lysosomes
_______________________________

AUTOPHAGY [“eating self”] or autophagocytosis [“the process in which cells eat themselves”] is the basic mechanism for recycling of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components  Autophagy, if regulated, ensures the synthesis, degradation and recycling of cellular components, and helps cells to survive starvation by maintaining energy levels
[Based on wikipedia]

Read more on vesicles …
Read more on lysosomes …
_______________________________

IMAGES:  Illustration  |  Journal cover

(via talesofscienceandlove)

science biology

scienceyoucanlove:

CHICKEN EMBRYO VASCULAR SYSTEM

This fluorescence micrograph shows the vascular system of a developing chicken embryo, two days after fertilization. Injecting fluorescent dextran revealed the entire vasculature used by the embryo to feed itself from the rich yolk inside the egg.
source
photo credit to VINCENT PASQUEE, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

scienceyoucanlove:

CHICKEN EMBRYO VASCULAR SYSTEM

This fluorescence micrograph shows the vascular system of a developing chicken embryo, two days after fertilization. Injecting fluorescent dextran revealed the entire vasculature used by the embryo to feed itself from the rich yolk inside the egg.

source

photo credit to VINCENT PASQUEE, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

(via mucholderthen)

biology science

science-junkie:

Can plastic be made from algae?
Algae are an interesting natural resource because they proliferate quickly. They are not impinging on food production. And they need nothing but sunlight and a bit of waste water to grow on. Scientists working for theSPLASH research project, funded by the EU, are now addressing the challenge of making high-quality, affordable plastics from algae. They need to demonstrate that this new type of bioplastic —namely used to produce polyesters and polyolefins— can be of the same quality as traditional plastic. And they need to show whether it can be produced in an economically viable way.
“We need a new species of algae which not only produces the right kind of hydrocarbons and sugars, but also does it fast,” explains says Maria Barbosa, SPLASH’s scientific coordinator and a researcher at Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research unit, in the Netherlands. She believes that genetic engineering can provide the solution to this problem. “Believe it or not, that’s the easy part,” she adds. But then “we need a way to ‘milk’ the new algae, to take the desired components from the broth without killing it,” she points out. However, this is the challenge that remains to be addressed.
Read more

science-junkie:

Can plastic be made from algae?

Algae are an interesting natural resource because they proliferate quickly. They are not impinging on food production. And they need nothing but sunlight and a bit of waste water to grow on. Scientists working for theSPLASH research project, funded by the EU, are now addressing the challenge of making high-quality, affordable plastics from algae. They need to demonstrate that this new type of bioplastic —namely used to produce polyesters and polyolefins— can be of the same quality as traditional plastic. And they need to show whether it can be produced in an economically viable way.

“We need a new species of algae which not only produces the right kind of hydrocarbons and sugars, but also does it fast,” explains says Maria Barbosa, SPLASH’s scientific coordinator and a researcher at Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research unit, in the Netherlands. She believes that genetic engineering can provide the solution to this problem. “Believe it or not, that’s the easy part,” she adds. But then “we need a way to ‘milk’ the new algae, to take the desired components from the broth without killing it,” she points out. However, this is the challenge that remains to be addressed.

Read more

(via thescienceofreality)

science biology

biomedicalephemera:

Top: Uterine lining at 5 1/2 months, displaying thin maternal separation from fetus, and high level of placental implantation
Center: Relation of placenta to uterus at 5 weeks and 8.5 months
Bottom: Major arteries and veins of the placenta

Did you know that the placenta is a temporary organ that’s actually created by the fetus, and not the woman?

The human female is a curious creature; like our close great ape cousins, but unlike almost all other mammals, they build up a thick barrier in the uterine wall, to protect against any potential embryo that might implant itself. When there’s no embryo implantation, the thickened wall is shed, in the process known as menstruation.

The thing is, most mammals don’t menstruate. They go into heat, and occasionally shed uterine lining (if the uterus is scratched, or an egg tries to implant but fails, for example), but there’s no regular cycle of bloody discharge relating to breeding. This is because other mammals go through triggered decidualization (developing a uterine lining only when a fertilized egg begins to implant itself), while the great apes (and a couple other convergently evolved families, including bats) experience spontaneous decidualization, where they develop a thick uterine lining during every ovulation, before an egg can even attempt to implant itself.

Why the different linings? Well, it turns out that there are three types of mammal placentas (remember, placentas are developed by the embryo/fetus, not the mother):

  1. Epitheliochordal, which is completely superficial, and does not connect in any significant way to the mother’s body. The endometrial epithelium, connective tissue, and uterine epithelium are all preserved and undisturbed in the mother. The fetus is separated from the mother by three layers of tissue. Nutrients and waste are delivered and eliminated through diffusion, rather than direct connection. This group includes equids, swine, and ruminants.
  2. Endotheliochordal, which is slightly more invasive to the mother, only preserves the uterine epithelium. Nutrients and waste are not exchanged through direct connection to the mother, but the placenta only leaves one layer of tissue between it and the mother. This group includes cats and dogs.
  3. Hemochorial is the most invasive form of placenta in the animal kingdom. The embryo directly hooks itself up to the host (mother’s) blood flow, and leaves no tissue layers between the female and the placenta. This allows much more efficient nutrient transfer to the embryo or fetus, but is also potentially the most harmful to the female since the embryo attaches itself so securely to the uterine wall. The female must develop preemptive measures (a thickened uterine lining) to protect herself from a life-form that is literally driven to take all of the nutrients it needs to develop, and which has adapted to connect itself directly to the host. This group includes elephant shrews, most bats, and most primates.

Interested in more about the science behind reproduction and how amazingly efficient the human embryo is at sucking its host clean, just to obtain its needed resources for development?

PZ Meyers at Pharyngula has an understandable explanation of the article I referenced for this post.

There is also a great site by R. Bowen about the pathophysiology of the reproductive system.

An American Text-Book of Obstetrics for Practitioners and Students. Edited by Richard C. Norris, 1895.

(via talesofscienceandlove)

science biology

tapejarascience:

via uniquedaily
‘Spider skin at 12,000 magnification’
This SEM image of spider skin was taken  by María Carbajo of the Electron Microscopy Unit at the University of Extremadura.
You can clearly see a follicle, hairs, and brochosomes from a preyed-upon leafhopper (the yellow balls).
It won her FEI’s 2012 photography competition (FEI is a microscopy technologies manufacturer). You can find links to other entrants’ photos here.
Featured here

Hey, look at this, from The University of Extremadura… the Spanish centers are not often shown in here, so… YAY!

tapejarascience:

via uniquedaily

‘Spider skin at 12,000 magnification’

This SEM image of spider skin was taken  by María Carbajo of the Electron Microscopy Unit at the University of Extremadura.

You can clearly see a follicle, hairs, and brochosomes from a preyed-upon leafhopper (the yellow balls).

It won her FEI’s 2012 photography competition (FEI is a microscopy technologies manufacturer). You can find links to other entrants’ photos here.

Featured here

Hey, look at this, from The University of Extremadura… the Spanish centers are not often shown in here, so… YAY!

(via talesofscienceandlove)

science biology spain

ohyeahdevelopmentalbiology:

raptinawe:

This confocal micrograph shows stage V–VI oocytes (800–1000 micron diameter) of an African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), a model organism used in cell and developmental biology research. Each oocyte is surrounded by thousands of follicle cells, shown in the image by staining DNA blue. Blood vessels, which provide oxygen to the oocyte and follicle cells, are shown in red. The ovary of each adult female Xenopus laevis contains up to 20 000 oocytes. Mature Xenopus laevis oocytes are approximately 1.2 mm in diameter, much larger than the eggs of many other species. (Photo by Vincent Pasque, University of Cambridge/Wellcome Images)(via Up Close: 2012 Wellcome Image Awards)

ohyeahdevelopmentalbiology:

raptinawe:

This confocal micrograph shows stage V–VI oocytes (800–1000 micron diameter) of an African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), a model organism used in cell and developmental biology research. Each oocyte is surrounded by thousands of follicle cells, shown in the image by staining DNA blue. Blood vessels, which provide oxygen to the oocyte and follicle cells, are shown in red. The ovary of each adult female Xenopus laevis contains up to 20 000 oocytes. Mature Xenopus laevis oocytes are approximately 1.2 mm in diameter, much larger than the eggs of many other species. (Photo by Vincent Pasque, University of Cambridge/Wellcome Images)

(via Up Close: 2012 Wellcome Image Awards)

(via scientificthought)

science biology photography

heythereuniverse:

DNA: Celebrate the unknowns | Philip Ball
On the 60th anniversary of the double helix, we should admit that we don’t fully understand how evolution works at the molecular level, suggests Philip Ball.
This week’s diamond jubilee of the discovery of DNA’s molecular structure rightly celebrates how Francis Crick, James Watson and their collaborators launched the ‘genomic age’ by revealing how hereditary information is encoded in the double helix. Yet the conventional narrative — in which their 1953 Nature paper led inexorably to the Human Genome Project and the dawn of personalized medicine — is as misleading as the popular narrative of gene function itself, in which the DNA sequence is translated into proteins and ultimately into an organism’s observable characteristics, or phenotype.
Sixty years on, the very definition of ‘gene’ is hotly debated. We do not know what most of our DNA does, nor how, or to what extent it governs traits. In other words, we do not fully understand how evolution works at the molecular level.
That sounds to me like an extraordinarily exciting state of affairs, comparable perhaps to the disruptive discovery in cosmology in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating rather than decelerating, as astronomers had believed since the late 1920s. Yet, while specialists debate what the latest findings mean, the rhetoric of popular discussions of DNA, genomics and evolution remains largely unchanged, and the public continues to be fed assurances that DNA is as solipsistic a blueprint as ever.
[Read more]

heythereuniverse:

DNA: Celebrate the unknowns | Philip Ball

On the 60th anniversary of the double helix, we should admit that we don’t fully understand how evolution works at the molecular level, suggests Philip Ball.

This week’s diamond jubilee of the discovery of DNA’s molecular structure rightly celebrates how Francis Crick, James Watson and their collaborators launched the ‘genomic age’ by revealing how hereditary information is encoded in the double helix. Yet the conventional narrative — in which their 1953 Nature paper led inexorably to the Human Genome Project and the dawn of personalized medicine — is as misleading as the popular narrative of gene function itself, in which the DNA sequence is translated into proteins and ultimately into an organism’s observable characteristics, or phenotype.

Sixty years on, the very definition of ‘gene’ is hotly debated. We do not know what most of our DNA does, nor how, or to what extent it governs traits. In other words, we do not fully understand how evolution works at the molecular level.

That sounds to me like an extraordinarily exciting state of affairs, comparable perhaps to the disruptive discovery in cosmology in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating rather than decelerating, as astronomers had believed since the late 1920s. Yet, while specialists debate what the latest findings mean, the rhetoric of popular discussions of DNA, genomics and evolution remains largely unchanged, and the public continues to be fed assurances that DNA is as solipsistic a blueprint as ever.

[Read more]

(via freshphotons)

science biology philosophy